(1) India has met its food demand by increasing food production by green revolution and milk demand by white revolution.
These revolutions mean that our natural resources are getting used more intensively.
(2) Table showing different grains/pulses and their nutrients
|SN||Crops||Example of crops||Nutrients|
|1.||Cereals||Wheat, rice, Maize, millets and sorghum||Carbohydrates provide energy|
|2.||Pulses||Gram (Chana), pea, black gram, green gram (Moong), pigeon pea(arhar), lentil (massor)||Proteins|
|3.||Oil seeds||Soyabean, ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard,linseed and sunflower.||Fats|
|4.||Vegetables, spices and fruits||Provide vitamins and minerals in addition to proteins, carbohydrates and fats.|
|5.||Fodder crops||Berseem, oats or sudan grass etc.|
(3) When same kind of plants are grown and cultivated at same place in large quantity, are known as crops.
Eg :- Cereals, vegetables, fruits.
(4) Types of cropping pattern in India-
India has different climatic condition (temperature, humidity and rainfall), so it has different crops at different places in different seasons. Crops can be divided in two broad pattern based on the season. These are explained below:
(i) Kharif Crops:-
(a) It is sown in rainy season, ie, June to September.
(b) Name of Kharif crops – Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut, cotton etc.
(ii) Rabi Crops:-
(a) It is grown in winter season, ie, October to March.
(b) Name of the Rabi Crops:- Wheat, gram, pea, mustard, linseed etc.
(iii) Pulses and vegetables are grown during summer at many places.
(5) Improvement in crop yields-
The major groups of activities for improving crop yields can be classified as
(i) Crop variety Improvement
(ii) Crop production improvement
(iii) Crop protection management
(i) Crop variety Improvement
Varieties or strains of crops can be selected by breeding for various useful characteristics such as disease resistance, response to fertilizers, product quality and high yields.
Methods to incorporate desirable characters in to crop varieties
|SN||Method to improve crop Varity||Process of method|
|1.||Hybridisation||Crossing between genetically dissimilar plants.
Types of crossing-
(i) Intervarietal – between different varieties
(ii) Interspecific – between two different species of the same genus
(iii) Intergeneric – between different genera.
|2.||Genetically modification||Introduction of a gene that would provide the desired characteristics.|
Factors which variety improvement is done are –
Higher yield – To increase higher yield the productivity of the crop per acre.
Improved quality – Quality considerations of crop products vary from crop to crop.
Eg: – Baking quality in wheat
Protein quality in pulses
Oil quality in oil seeds
Preserving quality in fruits and vegetables
Biotic and abiotic resistance – Crops production can go down due to biotic (diseases, insects and nematodes) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost) stresses under different situations.
Varieties resistant to these stresses can improve crop production.
Change in maturity duration – The shorter the duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting, the more economical is the variety.
Benefits to farmers for short duration of crop –
(a) Framers can grow multiple rounds of crops in a year.
(b) Short duration also reduces the cost of the crop production.
(c) Uniform maturity makes the harvesting process easy and reduces losses during harvesting.
Wider adaptability – Developing varieties for wider adaptability will help in stabilizing the crop production under different environmental conditions. One variety can then be grown under different climatic conditions in different areas.
Desirable agronomic characteristics – Developing varieties of desired agronomic characters help give higher productivity.
Eg:- Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops.
Dwarfness is desired in cereals, so that less nutrients are consumed by these crops.
(ii) Crop production management –
Nutrient Management –
Nutrients are essential for plants growth.
Nutrient supplied by the soil and water are tabulated below –
|3.||Soil||(i) Macronutrients – require din large quantity eg:-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur
(ii) Micronutrients – required in small quantity eg:- iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chlorine
Effects of deficiency of nutrients in plants –
(a) Physiological processes
(d) Susceptibility to diseases
We supplied these nutrients in plants by manure and fertilizers.
Manure is an organic matter prepared by the decomposition of the animal excreta and plant waste.
Benefits of manure for plants-
(a) Enriched soil with nutrients and organic matter.
(b) Increase soil fertility.
(c) Improve soil structure.
(d) Increased water holding capacity in sandy soil.
(e) The large quantity of organic matter helps in drainage and in avoiding water logging in clayey soil.
(f) Biological waste is used which protect our environment from excessive use of fertilizers.
(g) Recycled farm waste
Classification of the Manure –
Classification based on the kind of biological material used.
(a) Compost and vermi– compost –
The compost is an organic matter and full of nutrients used for plant growth and obtained in the process of composting.
The vermi – compost is prepared by using earthworms to hasten the process of decomposition of plant and animal refuse.
(b) Green manure –
Green manure is prepared by mulching the sown crop (eg:- guar, sunhemp) parts in to soil which helps in enriching the soil in nitrogen and phosphours.
Mulch is a layer applied to the soil to protect soil moisture, improve fertility and reducing weed growth.
Fertilizers are inorganic commercially produced plant nutrients which supply nitrogen, phosphours and potassium.
For details study go to the link : crop production and management
Steps to be taken while using fertilizers-
(a) Proper dose, time and observing pre and post application for complete utilization of the fertilizers are necessary.
Eg:- Sometimes fertilizers washed away by the excessive irrigation and are not used by the plants.
(b) Fertilizers should not use continuously because it destroy soil fertility and harm micro – organisms of the soil.
Organic farming is a farming system in which chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides are not used and maximum manure is used for healthy crop.
Irrigation is the most important to grow crop.
In India, many irrigation systems are available. Some of these are –
Water can be lifted by pumps for irrigation from the wells.
Types of wells-
(a) Dug well is a well excavating by hand tools till the underground water come up for use.
(b) Tube well can tap water from the deeper strata.
A canal receives water from reservoirs or from rivers and main canal is divided into branches to distribute water into fields.
River lift system –
Water is directly drawn from the river to the fields near to rivers.
Tanks – These are used for small areas.
New initiative for irrigation –
(a) Rain water harvesting
(b) Watershed management
(c) Small check – dams
Cropping patterns – Different ways of growing crops can be used to give maximum benefit.
Mixed cropping is the growing of two or more crops on the same field at the same time.
Eg:- Grow wheat and gram
It reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops.
Inter cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern.
Eg:- soyabean and maize
Benefits of inter cropping –
(a) The crops are selected which needs different nutrients to ensure maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied.
(b) It prevents spreading of pest to all plants belonging to one crop in a field.
(c) It prevents spreading of disease to all plants belonging to one crop in a field.
Crop rotation is the process in which different crops grows on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession.
Dependability of crop rotation-
(a) It depends on the duration of crops.
(b) It depends on the moisture of soil.
(c) It also depends on the irrigation facility.
If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be grown in a year.
(iii) Crop protection management- Weeds, insect pests and diseases should be removed from the crop to protect it.
Eg:- Xanthium (Gokhroo)
Parthenium (Gajar ghas)
Cyperinus rotundus (Motha).
Weeds – Weeds are unwanted plants in the cultivated field.
Harmful effect of weeds on plants –
(a) Takes nutrients from the land.
(b) Reduce growth of the crop.
Methods to control weeds –
(a) Mechanical removal of weed is very useful and time taking technique to remove weeds.
(b) Proper bed preparation
(c) Timely sowing of seeds
(e) Crop rotation
(f) Summer ploughing in which fields are ploughed deep to destroy weeds.
Insect pests – Insect pests are feed on human, livestock and on crop and transmit them diseases.
Harmful effect of insect pests on plants –
(a) They cut the root, stem and leaf
(b) They suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant
(c) They bore into stem and fruits
Diseases – Diseases are caused by pathogens like bacteria, fungi and viruses which can be present in and transmitted through soil, water and air.
Harmful effect of diseases on plants –
(a) Diseases block the growth of the plant.
Methods to control pests and diseases –
(a) Pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are sprayed in controlled quantity on the plants to save from the diseases and insects pests.
(b) Use of resistant varieties of crop.
(c) Summer ploughing in which fields are ploughed deep to destroy pests.
Storage of grains
Keeping of dried harvested crop in jute bags or metallic bins are known as storage of crop or grain. It is necessary to dry harvested crop or grains to keep away rats, bacteria and fungi from the grains. If freshly harvested grains are stored they may lose their germination capacity.
Factors responsible for losses of grains during storage are –
(a) Biotic factors such as insects, rodents, fungi, millets and bacteria etc.
(b) Abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture and temperature in the place of storage.
Results of factors responsible for losses of grains during storage are –
(a) Degradation in quality
(b) Loss in weight
(c) Poor germinability
(d) Discoloration of produce
Preventive and control measures are used before grains are stored for future use. These are listed below –
(a) Strict cleaning of the produce before storage
(b) Proper drying of the produce first in sunlight and then in shade
(c) Fumigation using chemicals that can kill pests.
(6) Animal husbandry –
Animal husbandry is the scientific management of breeding, feeding and diseases control of farm animals.
Animal based farming includes cattle farming, polutry farming, fish farming.
Cattle farming –
Purpose of cattle farming –
(a) Milch animals are used for milk production.
(b) Draught labour for agriculture work such as tilling, irrigation and carting.
Two different species of the Indian cattle-
(a) Bos indicus – cows
(b) Bos bubalis – buffaloes
Lactation period- Milk production is depends on the duration of the lactation period.Lactation period can be increased by increasing the lactation period.
(a) Exotic or foreign breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss are known for long lactation period.
(b) Local breeds such as Red Sindhi, Sahiwal are known for excellent resistance to disease.
Steps of cleaning animals
(a) Regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair.
(b) Well ventilated roofed sheds that protect animals from rain, heat and cold.
(c) The floor of the shed should be sloped to keep floor dry.
Types of food requirements of dairy animals –
(a) Maintenance food is required to support the animal to live a healthy life.
(b) Milk producing food is required during the lactation period.
Animal feed includes –
(b) Concentrates which high in proteins and other nutrients.
Diseases of cattle –
(a) External parasites live on skin and causes skin diseases.
(b) Internal parasites like worms affect stomach and intestine while flukes damage the liver.
(c) Infectious diseases are also caused by bacteria and viruses.
Vaccinations are given to animals to save them from diseases.
Poultry farming is undertaken for egg production and chicken meat.
Cross breeding programme between Indian breeds (Like Aseel) and foreign breeds (Like Leghoirn) are focused to develop new varieties of poultry.
List of desirable trait for cross breeding in poultry-
(a)Number and quality of chicks
(b) Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production
(c) Summer adaptation capacity/ tolerance to high temperature
(d) Low maintenance requirements
(e) Reduction in size of the egg laying bird with ability to utilize more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural by products.
They are the chicken which are taken care and sent to market for meat.
Broiler chicken are fed with vitamin rich diet like vitamin A and K and protein rich diet for fat and good growth and care is taken to avoid mortality and for meat.
They are the chickens which grow for laying eggs.
Good management practices for poultry birds –
(a) Maintain temperature
(b) Good hygienic conditions in housing and in feed.
(c) Prevention and control of diseases and pests.
(d) Vaccination is very important.
Fish is a natural good source of protein.
Fish production include-
(a) Finned true fish
(b) Shellfish eg:- prawns and molluscs.
Method to obtain fish-
(a) Natural resources which are called capture fishing.
(b) Fish farming which is called culture fishery.
Mariculture is a specialized branch of the aquaculture to cultivate marine organisms for food and other purposes in open ocean, tanks or ponds filled with sea water.
Water sources of the fish-
(a) Sea water
(b) Fresh water
(a) India’s marine fishery resources include 7500 km of coastline and the deep seas beyond it.
(b) Marine fish varieties – pomphret, tuna, mackerel, sardines and Bombay duck.
(c) Fishes can be caught using many kinds of fishing nets from fishing boats.
(e) Yields can be increase by locating large school of fish in the open sea by using satellites and echo – sounders.
(f) Some marine fish also farmed in sea water for their economic value.
Eg:- Finned fish – mullets, bhetki and pearl spots
Shellfish – prawns, mussels and oysters (also cultivated for pearls they make)
(e) Mariculture is farming of the marine organisms for food and other purposes (Medicines, jwellery etc.) in open sea or in tank or ponds filled with sea water.
(a) Fresh water resources – Canals, ponds, rivers and reservoirs etc.
(b) Where sea water and fresh water mix together is called brackish water. It is also very important source for fish cultivations.
Eg:- Esturies and lagoons
Methods to do fish culture-
(a) Fish culture is sometimes done in combination with a rice crop. Therefore, fish are grown in water with paddy field.
(b) Composite fish culture system – Composite fish culture is a system in which four or five species of fishes with different food habits kept in a single pond.
Eg:- Catlas are surfec feeders
Rohus are middle zone feeders
Mrigals and common craps are bottom feeders
Grass Carps are weed feeders
Therefore, all spices of fishes can eat food and increase the fish yield of the pond.
Problems in composite fish culture-
(a) Many of fish breed only during monsoon.
(b) Fish seeds of all spices are mixed up.
(c) Lack of availability of good quality of seeds.
(d) Many fishes eat eggs of other fishes.
Solution of the problem –
Breed these fishes in ponds using hormonal stimulation. This has ensured the supply of pure fish seed in desired quantity.
Bee keeping (Apiculture)
Bee keeping is a practice to breed bees for their honey for commercial purposes.
Farmers used bee keeping as an additional source of income because it needs low investment.
Varieties of bee
Local (Indian ) Variety is Apis cerana indica Commonly known as Indian bee.
A.dorsata, the rock bee
A.florae, the little bee
Itallian bee variety
Benefits of Italian bee
(a) It has also been brought in to increase yield of honey.
(b) This is the variety commonly used for commercial honey production because they have high honey collection capacity.
(c) They sting less.
(d) hay stay in given beehive for long periods.
(e) They breed well.
The value or quality of honey depends on pasturage, ie, good flowers availability to bees for nectar and pollen available.