Improvement in Food Resources (NCERT Solutions, Class 9)

Page 204

(1) What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?

Ans- Table showing different nutrients in grains/pulses

SN Crops Example of crops Nutrients
1.  Cereals Wheat, rice, Maize, millets and sorghum Carbohydrates provide energy
2. Pulses Gram (Chana), pea, black gram, green gram (Moong), pigeon pea(arhar), lentil (massor) Proteins
3. Oil seeds Soyabean, ground nut, sesame, castor, mustard,linseed and sunflower. Fats
4. Vegetables,spices and fruits Provide vitamins and minerals in addition to proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
5. Fodder crops Berseem, oats or sudan grass etc.  


Page 205

(1) How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?

Ans- Biotic and abiotic resistance – Crops production can go down due to biotic (diseases, insects and nematodes) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost) stresses under different situations.

(2) What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?

Ans- Desirable agronomic characteristics – Developing varieties of desired agronomic characters help give higher productivity.

Eg:- Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops.

Dwarfness is desired in cereals, so that less nutrients are consumed by these crops.

Page 206

(1) What are macro – nutrients and why are they called macro nutrients?

Ans- The nutrients which are required in large quantity is called macro-nutrients.

Eg:-Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur etc.

Macro means large and these nutrients needs in large quantity. Therefore, they are called as macro – nutrients.

(2) How do plants get nutrients?

Ans- Plants get nutrients by manure and fertilizers. Manure is an organic matter prepared by the decomposition of the animal excreta and plant waste. It enriched soil with nutrients and organic matter and increase soil fertility.

Fertilizers are inorganic commercially produced plant nutrients which supply nitrogen, phosphours and potassium.

Page 207

(1) Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.

Ans- Continuous use of manure increase the fertility of soil because manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal and plant waste. But continuous use of fertilizers decreases the soil fertility and harm micro – organisms of the soil.

Page 208

(1) Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?

(a) Farmers use high – quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.

(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.

(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.


(a) In first case, farmer is using high – quality seeds that will provide good quality of crop. But he is not using fertilizers and irrigation. Therefore, he will not get enough water for crop and lack of fertilizer will lead to less quantity of crop.

(b) In second case, farmer is using ordinary seeds that will not provide good quality of crop. But he is using fertilizers and irrigation. Therefore, he will get enough water for crop and proper fertilizer will lead to good quantity of crop.

(c) In third case, farmer is using good quality of seeds, adopting irrigation and using fertilizers. Therefore, farmer will get good quality and quantity of crop

Hence, condition (c) will give the most benefit to farmer.

Page 209

(1) Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?

Ans- Preventive measures and biological control methods should be preferred to protect crops for future use. Otherwise crop will be damaged by fungi, bacteria, rodents, moisture etc.

(2) What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?

Ans- Factors responsible for losses of grains during storage are –

(a) Biotic factors such as insects, rodents, fungi, millets and bacteria etc.

(b) Abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture and temperature in the place of storage.

Page 210

(1) Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?

Ans- Cross breeding programme is used to produce improved cattle breeds because new breeds have quality of both good breeds.

Eg:- Indian breeds (Like Aseel) and foreign breeds (Like Leghoirn) are focused to develop new varieties of poultry.

Page 211

(1) Discuss the implications of the following statement:

“It is interesting to note that poultry in India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”

Ans- The above statement implies that we give fibrous food to the hens and they give us eggs and meat which are full of protein.

Page 211

(1) What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?

Ans- Good management practices for dairy farming –

(a) Regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair.

(b) Well ventilated roofed sheds that protect animals from rain, heat and cold.

(c) The floor of the shed should be sloping to keep floor dry.

(d) Maintenance food is required to support the animal to live a healthy life.

(e) Vaccinations are given to animals to save them from diseases.

Good management practices for poultry birds –

(a) Maintain temperature

(b) Good hygienic conditions in housing and in feed.

(c) Prevention and control of diseases and pests.

(d) Vaccination is very important.

(2) What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?

Ans – Differences between broiler and layers

SN Broilers Layers
1. They are the chickens which are taken care and sent to market for meat. They are the chickens which grow for laying eggs.
2. They have good nutritious diet. Not get good nutritious diet.
3. They get high protein diet. Not get high protein diet.
4. Get vitamin A and K rich diet. Not get Vitamin A and K rich diet.
5. Regular vaccination is done. Not regular vaccination is done.
6. Keep in clean place. Sometime not keep in clean place.

Page 213

(1) How are fish obtained?

Ans- Methods to obtain fish

(a) Natural resources which are called capture fishing.

(b) Fish farming which is called culture fishery.

(2) What are the advantages of composite fish culture?

Ans- Advantages of composite fish culture-

(a) We can get good seeds of four or five spices of fishes at the same time.

(b) Good number of fishes can be cultivated.

Page 213

(1) What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?

Ans- Desirable characters of the bee-

(a) Bees should have high honey collection capacity.

(b) Bees should stay in given bee hive for long periods.

(c) Bees should sting less.

(2) What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?

Ans- Pasturage is the availability of flowers for nectar and pollen. It is related to the honey production because it determines tatse of the honey.


(1) Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.

Ans- Mixed cropping is the growing of two or more crops on the same field at the same time.

Eg:- Grow wheat and gram

It reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops and ensures high yield.

(2) Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?


Manure are used in fields to increase quality of crop and fertility of soil .Manure gives organic matter and nutrients to the soil. Fertilizers are also used to ensure good growth of the plant. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are provided to the plants by fertilizers. Therefore, it is good to use a combination of manure and fertilizers to get optimum crop.

(3) What are the advantages of inter – cropping and crop rotation?

Ans- Inter cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern.

Eg:- soyabean and maize

Advantages of inter cropping –

(a) The crops are selected which needs different nutrients to ensure maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied.

(b) It prevents spreading of pest to all plants belonging to one crop in a field.

(c) It prevents spreading of disease to all plants belonging to one crop in a field.

Crop rotation is the process in which different crops grows on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession.

Advantages of crop rotation –

(a) If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be grown in a year.

(b) Crop rotation gives good income to the farmer.

(c) It prevents soil depletion.

(4) What is the genetic manipulation? How I sit useful in agricultural practices?

Ans- Genetically modification is Introduction of a new gene that would provide the desired characteristics.

It is useful in agriculture to get better quality of crop.

(5) How do storage grain losses occur?

Ans Factors responsible for losses of grains during storage are –

(a) Biotic factors such as insects, rodents, fungi, millets and bacteria etc.

(b) Abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture and temperature in the place of storage.

(6) How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?

Ans- Benefits to farmers with practice of animal husbandry-

(i) Farmers can get good breeds of animals, birds and fishes.

(ii) Farmers can sell milk and honey to increase their income.

(iii) Vaccination will improve health of the animals.

(7) What are the benefits of the cattle farming?

Ans- Benefits of cattle farming –

(a) Milk production

(b) Draught labour got agriculture work such as tilling, irrigation and carting

(8) For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee – keeping?

Ans- Nutritious food, good hygienic conditions and proper management are common poultry, fisheries and bee – keeping for increasing production.

(9) How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?

Ans- Natural resources which are called capture fishing.

Mariculture is a branch of aquaculture which cultivated sea water animals.

Aquaculture is farming of fresh water and sea water animals.

Helping Topics

Improvements in Food Resources


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