(1)Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.
float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called_____.
(b) The first step before growing crops is ___ of the soil.
(c)Damaged seeds would ___ on the top of the water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and ______and ___________from the soil are essential.
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called crop.
(b) The first step before growing crops is preparation of the soil.
(c)Damaged seeds would float on the top of the water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and water and nutrients from the soil are essential.
(2) Match items in column A with those in column B.
(i)Kharif crops (a)Food for cattle
(ii)Rabi crops (b)Urea and super phosphate
(iii)Chemical frtilisers (c) Animal excreta, cow dung urine, and plant waste
(iv)organic manure (d)Wheat, gram, pea
(e) Paddy and maize
(i)Kharif crops (e) (a)Food for cattle
(ii)Rabi crops (d) (b)Urea and super phosphate
(iii)Chemical frtilisers (b) (c) Animal excreta, cow dung urine, and plant waste
(iv)organic manure (c) (d)Wheat, gram, pea
(e) Paddy and maize
3)Give two example of each.
(a) Kharif crop – Paddy, maize
(b)Rabi crop – Wheat, pea
(4) Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
(a)Preparation o soil
(a)Preparation o soil
Turning and loosening of soil by farmer and earthworms and microbes are called preparation of soil or tilling, or ploughing. Turning and loosening of soil penetrate deep into the soil. It makes breathing easy for roots in deep inside the soil.Decayed or dead plants and animals decomposed by the soil organisms and decomposed material mix with water, mineral, air and nutrients of the soil. Few centimeters of the top layer of the soil is necessary for the development of the plant. It is necessary to turn and loosen the soil because it brings back the nutrients of soil to the top. So, plants can take nutrients from the top layer of the soil. Dry soil needs watering before ploughing. The big piece of soil of ploughed field are known as crumbs. It is necessary to break these crumbs with a plank and leveled for sowing and irrigation purposes.
Sowing is the process in which good quality of seeds are spread over the soil to grow into plants. Seeds should be sow at equal distance for the proper growth of the plants. It provides sufficient sunlight, nutrients and water from the soil because it prevents overcrowding. Framers have to be removed some plants to avoid overcrowding of the seeds.Seeds can be sprinkle by farmers or with the help of machines. Good quality of seeds which give high yield are selected by the farmers.
Weeds are undesirable plants which grow along with crop. The processes in which weeds are removed are known as weeding. It is very necessary to remove weeds because they compete with the crops for nutrients , water, space and light. Therefore, they affect the growth of plants. We can control weeds by tilling the soil before sowing crops. Weedicides (chemical) can be sprayed on the weeds after diluted with water. Weedicides do not damage the crop.
Threshing is a process in which grains are separated from the chaff by thrashing or putting chaff on the floor with force. Thrashing can be done with machines also.
(5) Explain how fertilizers are different from manure.
Differences between fertilizer and manure
|1.||It is an inorganic substance.||It is an organic substance.|
|2.||It is obtained by chemical substances.||It is obtained by the decomposition of natural substances as cattle dung, human waste and plant residues.|
|3.||It is prepared in factories.||It is prepared in the fields.|
|4.||A fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil.||Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.|
|5.||Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are found in large quantities.||Nutrients like nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are not found in large quantities.|
|6.||Excessive use of it has made the soil less fertile.||Excessive use of it does not make soil less fertile.|
|7.||It becomes source of water pollution because of excessive use of it.||Excessive use of it improves soil texture and water retaining capacity.|
(6) What is irrigation? Describe two method of the irrigation which conserve water?
Irrigation is the system to supply water in the fields for crops at appropriate intervals.
Intervals of supply water or irrigation depends on-
Two methods of irrigation which help us to use water economically and use less labour are describe below:
(i) Sprinkler System:- Sprinkler system is a system which can be used on water deficient land easily and effectively. Pipes are connected with each other perpendicularly on a main pipe at regular intervals. These pipes have rotating nozzles to sprinkler water in all directions. Water flows through main pipe with the help of pump. This water sprinkled on the crop. It is a very good system for sandy soil.
(ii) Drip Irrigation
It is a modern technique for watering plants. In this system water reached to the roots drop by drop. Pipes are spread in whole field with small holes or small pipes. Water flows in the main pipe and reached drop by drop to the roots of plants with out wasting water.
(7)If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
Kharif season (June to September) is known as rainy season. Therefore, it has plenty of water, humid climate and hot temperature. But wheat needs low temperature, less water and cold climate which is available in rabi season (October to March). If we sow wheat in kharif season seeds will not germinate due to lots of water. Water logging will not allow air to go between pores of soil. As a result seed will destroy. Therefore, we will not get crop of wheat in kharif season.
(8)Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.
Plants receive nutrients and minerals from soil. Continuous plantation in a field reduces its nutrients and minerals of soil. It also reduces quality of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to add nutrients in the soil to get good crop. So, farmers add fertilisers and manure in soil after getting every crop.
(9)What are weeds? How can we control them?
Weeds are undesirable plants which grow along with crop. We can control weeds by tilling the soil before sowing crops. Weedicides (chemical) can be sprayed on the weeds after diluted with water. Weedicides do not damage the crop.
(10)Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.
Flow chart of sugarcane crop production is showing below:
(11)Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below:
- Providing water to the crops.
- Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
- Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.
- A machine used for cutting the matured crop.
- A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
- A process of separating the grain from chaff.